William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “‘Muerto por Unos Desconocidos (Killed by Persons Unknown)’:…
… Mob Violence against African Americans and Mexican Americans, ” in Beyond monochrome: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender into the U.S. Southern and Southwest, ed. Stephanie Cole and Allison Parker (College facility, 2004), 35–74; William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “A Dangerous Experiment: The Lynching of Rafael Benavides, ” New Mexico Historical Review, 80 (summer time 2005), 265–92. For a Texas research study, see Nicholas Villaneuva Jr., “‘Sincerely Yours for Dignified Manhood’: Lynching, Violence, and United states Manhood during early several years of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1914, ” Journal regarding the western, 49 (cold temperatures 2010), 41–48. The Chinatown War: Chinese Los Angeles and the Massacre of 1871 (New York, 2012) on mob violence against “racial others” in the West, see, for example, Pfeifer, Rough Justice, 86–88; Pfeifer, Roots of Rough Justice, 46–50; and Scott Zesch. Regarding the lynching of 29 Sicilians, another cultural team regarded as racially various within the postbellum Southern, see Clive Webb, “The Lynching of Sicilian Immigrants when you look at the United states South, 1886–1910, ” United states Nineteenth Century History, 3 (springtime 2002), 45–76. In the lynching of Sicilians in Colorado, see Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919 (Boulder, 2002), 135–42.
Christopher Waldrep, the numerous Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in the us (nyc, 2002); Christopher Waldrep, ed., Lynching in the usa: a past history in papers (nyc, 2006); Christopher Waldrep, African People in america Confront Lynching: methods of opposition through the Civil War to your Civil Rights age (Lanham, 2008); William D. Carrigan and Christopher Waldrep, eds., Swift to Wrath: Lynching in Global Historical attitude (Charlottesville, 2013). Jonathan Markowitz, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory (Minneapolis, 2004), xxxi. On lynching within the context of Jim Crow tradition, see Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The society of Segregation within the Southern, 1890–1940 (ny, 1998), 199–238. For analyses of literary and artistic representations of lynching through the belated nineteenth through the mid-twentieth hundreds of years, see Jacqueline Goldsby, the Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American lifestyle and Literature (Chicago, 2006); and Sandy Alexandre, The qualities of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching (Jackson, 2012). For narratives of southern and vigilantism that is western lynching, see Lisa Arellano, Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and country (Philadelphia, 2012). For lynching within the context for the Protestant tradition regarding the postbellum American South, see Donald G. Mathews, “The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice: Lynching into the United states South, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 62 (Winter–Spring 2008), 27–70. Amy Louise Wood, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890–1940 (Chapel Hill, 2009), 14. Fury, dir. Fritz Lang ( mgm, 1936); The Ox-Bow Incident, dir. William Wellman (Twentieth Century Fox, 1943). On lynching when you look at the people culture of vermont’s reduced Piedmont, see Bruce E. Baker, “North Carolina Lynching Ballads, ” in Under Sentence of Death, ed. Brundage, 219–46. On lynching in belated nineteenth- and early twentieth-century theater that is black see Koritha Mitchell, coping with Lynching: African American Lynching has, Efficiency, and Citizenship, 1890–1930 (Urbana, 2012). Sherrilyn A. Ifill, From the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching when you look at the Twenty-First Century (Boston, 2007). For a residential district study that explored the long legacy of racially inspired lynchings in Marion, Indiana, in 1931, see James H. Madison, Lynching within the Heartland: Race and Memory in the usa (nyc, 2001). For a synopsis of lynching in US culture, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, American Lynching ( brand brand brand New Haven, 2012). When it comes to argument that an end-of-lynching discourse continues to contour and distort discussion of American mob physical violence, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, the finish of American Lynching (brand new Brunswick, 2012).
Crystal Feimster, Southern Horrors: Females and also the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). On African women that are american relationship to lynching, see Evelyn M. Simien, ed., Gender and Lynching: The Politics of Memory (nyc, 2011). The cases of Rosa Jefferson and Marie Scott” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Missouri–Columbia, 2006) for case studies of lynchings of African American women in Georgia, Oklahoma, and South Carolina, see Julie Buckner Armstrong, Mary Turner and the Memory of Lynching (Athens, Ga., 2011); and Maria DeLongoria, “‘Stranger Fruit’: The Lynching of Black Women. For a treatment that is journalistic of lynching of two African US partners in Walton County, Georgia, in 1946, see Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: the past Mass Lynching in the usa (nyc, 2003). Regarding the lynching of women and kids into the West, see Helen McLure, “‘I Suppose you might think Strange the Murder of females and Children’: The US society of Collective Violence, 1675–1930” (Ph.D. Diss., Southern Methodist University, 2009). For a listing of feminine lynching victims, see Kerry Segrave, Lynchings of females in the usa: The Recorded instances, 1851–1946 (Jefferson, 2010). Claude A. Clegg III, distressed Ground: an account of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning when you look at the brand brand New Southern (Urbana, 2010); Terrence Finnegan, A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and sc, 1881–1940 (Charlottesville, 2013). On Mississippi’s respected record of racial mob physical violence, see Julius E. Thompson, Lynchings in Mississippi: a past history, 1865–1965 (Jefferson, 2007). On lynching within the Carolinas, see Bruce E. Baker, This Mob Will Certainly simply take My Life: Lynching when you look at the Carolinas, 1871–1947 (London, 2008); and J. Timothy Cole, The Forest City Lynching of 1900: Populism, Racism, and White Supremacy in Rutherford County, new york (Jefferson, 2003).
Kidada E. Williams, They Left Great markings on me personally: African US Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I ( brand brand New York, 2012). On African American reactions to mob physical physical violence, see Karlos Hill, “Resisting Lynching: Ebony Grassroots reactions to Lynching within the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1882–1938” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Illinois, 2009).
Present scholarship, specially that centered on civil legal rights activism, has started to explore African US reactions to racial terror during the regional degree.
On black colored responses to racial terror in fin-de-siecle Florida as well as in 1960s and 1970s Alabama and Mississippi, respectively, see Paul Ortiz, Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden reputation for Ebony Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction towards the Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley, 2006); Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Ebony Power in Alabama’s Ebony Belt (nyc, 2010); and Akinyele Omowale Umoja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance into the Mississippi Freedom Movement (New York, 2013). Ifill, Regarding The Courthouse Lawn, xix–xx. When it comes to Senate apology, see Congressional Record, 109 Cong., 1 sess., 13, 2005, p. S6364–88 june. For news protection for the U.S. Senate apology see, as an example, Wendy Koch, “U.S. Senate Moves to Apologize for Injustice, ” usa Today, June 13, 2005; and Martin C. Evans, “An Apology for Old type of Terror: Senate Expects to Vote Tomorrow on Resolution regarding Its Failure to aid End Practice of Lynching, ” Newsday, June 12, 2005, p. A34. On efforts to memorialize lynchings in Duluth, Minnesota, in 1920 plus in cost, Utah, in 1925, respectively, see Dora Apel, “Memorialization and its own Discontents: America’s First Lynching Memorial, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 61 (Winter–Spring 2008); and Kimberley Mangun and Larry R. Gerlach, “Making Utah History: Press Coverage of this Robert Marshall Lynching, June 1925, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 143–47. The chains: In Montgomery, Ala., a Move to Remember Slavery Exactly Where It Happened, ” New York Times, Dec. 10, 2013, pp on an effort by Bryan Stevenson and the Equal Justice Initiative to erect memorials at lynching sites around the South, see Campbell Robertson, “Before the Battles and the protests. 17–18.